Deep water soundscapes off northeastern Taiwan

This dataset is an archive of acoustic data associated with the soundscapes of a continental shelf environment off northern Taiwan. Python codes to visualize the acoustic data were also provided in a notebook based on Google Colab.

Recording Site

MArine Cable Hosted Observatory (MACHO) is a long-term cabled observatory system off northeastern Taiwan. The MACHO has an environmental sensing node at 24°33.0ʹ N, 122°07.9ʹ E, where the water depth is 277 m. A bottom-mounted hydrophone (model TC-4032; Reson, Slangerup, Denmark) was in operation from October 2011 to May 2014. The effective sensitivity of the hydrophone was −164 dB re 1 V/μPa, and the frequency response ranged from 10 Hz to 80 kHz (±2.5 dB). Underwater recordings were sampled at 384 kHz and saved in a waveform audio format every 30 s. All recording clips are archived in the Geophysical Database Management System and available for research use with permission from the Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan.

Details about the MACHO are available at:

  • Chi-Fang Chen, Hsiang-Chih Chan, Ray-I Chang, Tswen-Yung Tang, Sen Jan, Chau-Chang Wang, Ruey-Chang Wei, Yiing-Jang Yang, Lien-Siang Chou, Tzay-Chyn Shin, Kai-Wen Kuo, Pei-Ling Lu, Nai-Chi Hsiao, Tzu-Wei Lin (2012) Data demonstrations on physical oceanography and underwater acoustics from the MArine Cable Hosted Observatory (MACHO). 2012 Oceans - Yeosu. doi:10.1109/OCEANS-Yeosu.2012.6263639

  • Nai-Chi Hsiao, Tzu-Wei Lin, Shu-Kun Hsu, Kai-Wei Kuo, Tzay-Chyn Shin & Peih-Lin Leu (2014) Improvement of earthquake locations with the Marine Cable Hosted Observatory (MACHO) offshore NE Taiwan. Marine Geophysical Research, 35: 327–336.

Data Processing

We used the LTSA_gui to generate long-term spectrograms (LTS) and save the LTS in mat files. Each mat file contains a mean-based LTS of 24 hours. Mean-based LTS was obtained by measuring mean power spectral densities of each audio clip. Therefore, it has a time resolution of 30 sec and a frequency resolution of 93.75 Hz.

Associated Publication

Tzu-Hao Lin, Tomonari Akamatsu, Yu Tsao. Sensing ecosystem dynamics via audio source separation: a case study of marine soundscapes off northeastern Taiwan. Under review.

Data and Resources


Wikidata Keywords

  • Q134851
  • Q1358257

Basic Information

Data Type
  • Source code
  • Audiovisual data
  • Scientific and statistical data formats
Language English (eng)

Spatio-temporal Information

Temporal Resolution Daily
Spatial Coverage show more

Management Information

Author Tzu-Hao Lin, Tomonari Akamatsu, Yu Tsao
Contact Person Tzu-Hao Lin
Contact Person Email